What Rs Driscoll’s Model Of Reflection?

driscoll's model

Driscoll’s model of reflection is a self-assessment questionnaire raised to find out your performance. Picked-up from Borton in 1970, the model was improvised by Driscoll (2007). 
It is designed as a learner’s guide for their learning. It is a model for reflecting on the event that occurred using mainly three questions of reflection, and they are: 


-So what? 

-And now what?  

However, when argued, these questions somewhat initially became ambiguous. Therefore, Driscoll took Boston’s questions and improved them with an experiential learning cycle.  

Driscoll’s addiction to his model remains, what should be incorporated at each stage to make it reflective. The reflective model provides a framework for students or practitioners to review their performance and what effort is required so that it can be improved. Driscoll’s model is considered essential as it has an easy-to-use structure that can be remembered effortlessly.  The learning also improves personal efficacy. 

The Model Has A General Application: 

Driscoll’s model of reflection is a general model not specified to only one application. The model is applicable easily with others because it does not have elements that can be specific to a discipline. Driscoll’s model was formed with clinical practice circumstances in mind; hence it is most commonly used in a clinical or a medical setting. 

Some Fields Where the Process Remains Useful 

The model is used across a wide range of disciplines, mostly those, where the ability of the individual impacts on the performance of the task, or in completing it.  

It does not follow a single standardized process. The model is applied in many moons. Some situations where they can be used invariably are those where practice and experience improved performance.  The role of the reflective model is to accelerate the learning process and supplement personal experiences. 


One of the widely used areas of reflective models is in nursing practice. This is possible as nursing has multiple aspects that provide different ranges of situations in which a partition needs to work.
A small example can be cited when a nurse gains experience of a medical situation only when she has attended different medical conditions of different types of patients’ needs. Only then does she gain practical experience as a practitioner. 

One added advantage of the model remains that a student or a practising nurse can use the Driscoll process without the need for mentor support directly to enhance the learning processes. Multiple reflective learning models can be used, but it is the Driscoll model that gained so much acceptability. Not all the reasons can be cited here, for knowing more about it, it would be best to avail assignment help online. However, some reasons being:

Why only Driscoll reflective models?

The process has been much advocated by the fields that have been practising it only because it has several advantages, owing to its level of simplicity.

-The three-stage model that it adopts has more straightforward questions as compared to other models. 

-Their direct questionnaires make remembering at different stages much more detailed; they follow a logical and easy to recall progression.

Its disadvantage remains in its application!

First being, its use of ambiguous terms that are likely to make the summary less detailed as compared to prescriptive models like that of Gibbs.  

Secondly, the real world, where experiences are gained, is not always logical or based on the analysis presented in a formulated manner. There are times when reflective learning is not enough.
The third disadvantage is that it is not a continued practice. It is only when the procedure is repeated in a cycle that an individual is likely to gain, rather than in a single process.


Driscoll, despite its several limitations, continues to be an excellent reflective model with many tools. It has an efficacy because of its use seen in areas such as analysis and diagnostics. It is also true in reflective learning. 

The model has advantages over others because the tool is easy to apply. The practitioners of this model propagate its use more frequently based on its informal application for thoroughly reviewing an event, other than undertaking a full reflective learning analysis.

The Driscoll model of reflection helps to build good habits, one of the practical reasons for using it. It allows room for more observation in future situations that may arise and also provides space for the practice of effective communication.


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here